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潇洒高考第六讲  

2009-05-29 17:21:44|  分类: 英语教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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潇洒高考第六讲

       任务型阅读             

任务型阅读是今年高考英语试题中新设题型,要求考生在阅读完一段材料后,能比较清楚地把握整篇文章的结构,较好地分析作者的观点和意图,并进行准确的表达。考生要能够获得直接信息,分析、总结信息,并转换信息,这有利于考查学生把握文章的篇章结构、综合处理信息的能力。考生在完成任务型阅读时,要遵循以下步骤。

  一、 读懂短文,了解大意

  读懂短文是解题的第一环,也是关键的一步。只有读懂了短文,才能顺利地在表格中填出相关信息。值得注意的是:如果表格前提供了小标题,要特别注意小标题,它通常是段落和表格的主题句。读懂了标题有助于理解短文和表格的大意和结构。

  二、 理清思路,加深理解

  理清短文主体结构,了解短文的写作思路和线索结构,有助于加深对篇章内容的理解,同时短文的结构往往也是很重要的命题线索,表格项目基本上就是根据篇章结构而设计的。

  三、 分析整理,确定答案

  通过分析、理顺表格线索,根据已有的表格内容提示来确定短文表格的设计线索,理清短文表格的设计原理,从而确定正确答案。同时答题时,务必遵循“先易后难,各个击破”的原则,不要在个别选项上耗费太多时间。

  四、 书写规范,词形正确

  需要注意的是,书写答案时,务必要注意规范,书写工整,千万不能因为大小写或抄写错误而扣分。另外,还要注意词性的转移和词形的正确使用,如:

  1. 名词的性、数、格

  2. 动词的过去式、过去分词和现在分词

  3. 动词的第三人称单数

  4. 形容词的比较级和最高级

  由于今年是新课程改革的第一年,命题者在命题时,会注意平稳性原则。而任务型阅读又是个新题型,所以可以预测今年高考任务型阅读的难度应该不会太大。同时,对于考试说明中所提供的第三种题型,由于其答案的不惟一性,不利于阅卷的操作,所以在高考中的使用几率不会太高。但考生要想提高任务型阅读的效率,想要在该项目上得高分,甚至得满分,除了进行系统的训练外,还应注意以下问题。

  一、系统复习语法,掌握扎实的基础知识

  掌握扎实的英语语言知识是顺利完成阅读任务的基础,特别是有些英语表达与中国人的思维习惯不相同。因此,只有真正掌握了阅读材料中的字、词、句式以及一些字词句的背景知识,才能灵活运用于阅读材料,才能做到成竹于胸。

  二、增加阅读量,培养良好的阅读习惯

  为了拓展我们的阅读面,养成英语阅读的习惯。我们可以读一些英文小故事、幽默、笑话,或者篇幅较长的简易英文读物;如果条件许可的话,还可开展一些读书活动,如everyday report、英文故事会、朗诵会、戏剧表演、介绍英语时事新闻等。同时,针对不同的阅读材料,使用扫读、略读等不同阅读技巧。

第一章 还原型阅读

 解题技巧

  1.浏览选项,推测大意

  2.通读全文,初选答案

  3.明辨真伪,一一还原

  4.复读全文,检查校正

 

第二章 配对型阅读

  1.快速浏览,总体把握

  2.排除干扰,一一配对

  3.疑难选项,反复推敲

  4.验证问题,清除疏漏

第三章 完成表格型阅读

 

  1.分析表格,有的放矢

  2.细读文章,搜集信息

  3.整理答案,规范书写

 

第四章 完成句子或短文型阅读

 解题技巧

  1.依据原文,把握主题

  2.抓住关键,捕捉信息

  3.反复核实,确定答案

第五章 排序型阅读  

  1.摸清脉络,驾驭全文

  2.把握细节,理清线索

  3.先易后难,对号入座

 

第六章 回答问题型阅读

 解题技巧

  1.浏览问题,带“题”阅读

  2.分析问句,正确作答

  3.组织语言,规范书写

 

第七章 综合型阅读

 解题技巧

  1.略读全文,抓住主题

  2.审清题目,减少失误

3.对症下药,各个击破

任务型阅读常见结构及答题要求:

一.

Title---purpose/aim/goal---background---problems---solutions

名词转换为动名词:

SJJP was founded by Johnson &Johnson in 1995 and specializes in manufacturing and development of non-prescription medicine and health care foods and products.

It is sponsored(赞助) by SJJP, which specializes in making and developing non-prescription medicine and health care foods and products.

动词转换为形容词:

Half of the parents didn’t know about their childrens’ motor skill.

Half of the parents are not aware/conscious of their childrens’ motor skill.

词组转换为单词:

A special team has been set up and traveling around 12 key cities of China to popularize child sports safety knowledge and offer free training for young parents.

A special team has been orgnized/formed and is now traveling around to popularize child sports safety knowledge and offering free training for young parents.

 

二.

Advantages---Disadvantages/Problems

名词转换为动词:

A person’s intelligence and abilities have a direct effect on his or her earnings.

intelligence and abilities affect their earnings directly.

根据句义填词:

While not all self-employed people are completely free to choose whatever hours they want to work.

Working hours are relatively free.

词组转换为单词:

In addition, salaried people often enjoy fringe benefits(额外补贴).

Enjoying fringe benefits besides wages.

 

三.

Title---Introduction---Negative effects---positive effects---conclusion

单词转换为词组:

Music attracts everyone.

Music appeals( to )everyone.

介词词组转换为副词:

They say that rock bands give kids negative thoughts and make teens act out in violence.

Rock is critisized for giving kid negative thoughts and make teens act out violently.

根据句义选词:

The only way rock influnces teenagers is on what they wear.

Rock just affects teens on appearance, not make them turn bad.

 

四.

Title---reasons---worry/worries/concerns---advantages

注意to是介词还是不定式符号:

…countless Frenchmen are committed to(尽职) keeping Fance in the forefront of the modern economic world.

..to keep Fance in the forefront of the modern economic world.

谓语动词转换为非谓语动词:

What he loses to some extent is his sense of personal uniqueness, or individuality.

  losing its sense of personal uniqueness, or individuality.

 

五.

Title/Topic---Feature---Harm---Different attitudes---Hope

意义整合:

Depression causes workers to be unproductive, causing companies and countries to lose billions of dollars.

To cause workers to produce less products.

To cause the big loss of companies and countries.

意义整合:

Depression is made more serious in China by Chinese’s inability to face it..

In China, most patients are helpless because they don’t admit to depression.

变名词为动词:

…people around the world will be able to admit that they have depression so that they can get the right treatment.

  …people will be able to admit that they have depression so that they can be treated correctly.

 

六.

Title---Causes---The problems---Solutions

小结找词:

They’ve carried trees, flowers, and vegetables from other places.

People from other places carrying a variety of plants.

转动词词义为名词形式:

If people cut down milkweed and replace it with something else , the butterflies starve, because their bodies cannot accept any other food.

Monarch butterflies will starve owing to lack of milkweed.

同义词:

Just Google “native plant” and your location, and you can find out which plants really belong where you live.

Surf  the Internet, and you can find local plants in your place.

 

七.

Title---Punishment---Current situation---Two more reasons---An argument---Coclusion/Suggestion/Advice

转副词为过去分词:

…most notably in the severe penalties for selling pirated(盗版的) CDs and DVDs, which can include jail time.

 It is noted that the severe penalties for selling pirated(盗版的) CDs and DVDs can include jail time.

同意词组互换:

Many people would rather buy an inexpensive copy …

Many people prefer( to) buy cheap copy product.

 

八.

Title---Aim/Purpose/Goal---results---reasons---steps---Conclusion

转非谓语动词为谓语动词:

…30.7 percent of survey respondents reported visiting a doctor for help with sleep problems and …

30.7% of the people visited a doctor for help because of sleep problems.

单词释义:

You should also avoid things that contain caffeine, shuch as chocolate, coffee, tea and many soft drinks, …

Try( not to) use such things: chocolate, coffee, tea and many soft drinks.

 

九.

Title---reasons---process---quality---instructions/tips/suggestions/advice---attitudes---importance/meaning/significance

根据意思写单词:

but about 50 were turned away for various medical reasons.

Failing/Failure in the medical test.

根据意思写单词:

When they finished filling out the form, they waited until a nurse called them to her desk.

Wait for their turns to give blood.

根据非谓语形式确定动词:

Do not smoke for at least 30 minutes.

No/Avoid smoking for not less than 30 minutes.

根据意思写单词:

Do not do any laborious activity for 24 hours.

Don’t perform any laborious activity for( a) whole (day).

十.补充:

1.  His study will appear tomorrow inn the journal Nature.

His study will be ____tomorrow inn the journal Nature.

2.  Greenhouse gasses are heating the atmosphere and the next ice age may be postponed.

   Greenhouse gasses ____the next ice age.

3.  many problems in financing college training.

    problems of ____ college training.

4.  helping in the preparation and serving of meals,…

____and serving meals.

5.  When Murdoch’s father died in 1952, Murdoch took ove one of his newspapers, the Adelaide News.

On his father’s ____, he took over the Adelaide News.

6.  He was interested in all kinds of media, …in 1961, he bought a small Australia record company, Festival Records.

in 1961 his ____in other media led him to buy Festival Records, a small Australia record company.

文章结构划分常用词:

1.title/where/place/process/instructions/tips/suggestions/advice/attitudes/importance/meaning/significance

2.title/sources of information/facts/predictions/views/ideas/opinions

3.problems of doing sth/ways/possibilities of doing sth

4.main items/causes/reasons/evidences/consequences

5.achievements/career/the secret of success

6.definition/advances/disadvances/attitudes

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