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潇洒高考第4讲  

2009-05-29 17:16:48|  分类: 英语教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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潇洒高考第4讲

       

阅读理解解题指导

  阅读是我国学生接触外语的主要途径.另外,阅读各类英语读物可以帮助学生扩大词汇量,加深对英浯的认识,了解英语国家的文化,并可以在很大较丰富的内容和较高的分值比例.

    从阅读部分的选材情况看,阅读材料1般较为简短,最长不超过350个单词;题材比较丰富,有日常生活、科普、人物传记.史地等;体裁较广,有记叙文、说明文、应用文等;材料来源广泛,有些节选自各类丛书,有些出自报纸杂志,有些则选自各类活页宣传材料.

    阅读部分考查考生的阅读理解能力,而所谓阅读理解能力即是指对文章的整体和局部信息的理解和掌握情况.整体指的是文章的主旨要义、作者的态度、意图等,局部则是指分散于文中的特定信息.试题形式为多项选择题,要求考生从每题所给的4个选择项中选出最佳选项.

 

1、“考试大纲”、“课标”与“教学大纲”对听力的要求

《考试大纲》要求:要求考生读懂公告、说明、广告以及书、报、杂志中关于1般性话题的简短文章.考生应能:

(1)理解主旨要义;

(2)理解文中具体信息;

(3)根据上下文推断生词的词义;

(4)作出简单判断和推理;

(5)理解文章的基本结构;

(6)理解作者的意图和态度.

《课标》要求:

(1) 能识别不同文体的特征;

(2) 能通过分析句子结构理解难句和长句;

(3) 能理解阅读材料中不同的观点和态度;

(4) 能根据学习任务的需要从多种媒体中获取信息并进行加工处理;

(5) 能在教师的帮助下欣赏浅显的英语文学作品;

(6) 除教材外,课外阅读量应累计达到30万词以上.

 

《教学大纲》要求:

(1)能以每分钟70-80个词的速度,读懂生词率不超过3%的有关人物传记、故事、记叙文、科普小品和有关社会文化、文史知识等不同题材的材料.

(2)能读懂简单的应用文,如信件、请柬、通知、便条和常见标志等.

(3)能运用1般的阅读技巧,基本把握所读材料的中心思想、主要事实、主要逻辑线索,时间和空间的顺序.

(4)能根据上下文理解作者的态度和观点.

(5)能根据已知的事实推断出语篇未直接写出的意思.

(6)除课文外,课外阅读量应达到20万字左右.

 

2、高考阅读理解大纲解读,命题特点及题型介绍

 

概述

近年来,高考阅读理解在阅读量上呈上升趋势,对考生在阅读速度和词汇量方面提出了更高要求.文章已增至为5篇,占了整套试卷相当大的篇幅,按照《普通高等学校招生全国统1考试说明》要求,考生应在35分钟内完成所有阅读文章以及答案的选择,这显然不是1件容易的事情.但阅读理解题命制的这种变化是与当前教育的发展相适应的.随着我国加入wto、世界经济1体化和网络信息发展的加快,出现了日益频繁的国际间交往,人们在日常生活中获取信息和处理信息的量急剧增加.因此,阅读理解题不断加大要求的命题趋势不仅需要,而且势在必行.

    高考阅读理解主要检测学生阅读和理解成段书面语言的综合能力,既考察学生的语言知识和技能,又考察他们对语言文字的理解、分析、推理、判断等诸多方面的思维能力.阅读理解能力的高低,是能否取得英语好成绩的关键所在.

 

(1)高考英语《考试大纲》对阅读理解的要求:

    高考英语《考试大纲》以及高中英语教学大纲分别都对高中英语的阅读能力要求做出规定,归纳起来,大致为:

    1.能阅读生词率不超过3%的文段(包括图表和常见标志):

    2,能把握所读材料的主要逻辑线索、时间和空间顺序;

    3.掌握所读材料的主旨和大意;

    4.了解用以阐述主旨的事实和有关细节;

    5.既理解个别句子的意义,也理解上下文之间的逻辑关系;

    6,既能理解具体事实,也能理解抽象概念:

    7.既能理解字面意思,也能理解深层含义;

    8.根据所读材料进行1定的判断、推理和引申;

    9.能根据上下文理解作者的态度和观点,以及文章的弦外之音;

10.根据上下文和中学生应有的常识判断生词的意义.

 

(2)高考阅读理解的命题特点:

1.阅读理解所选的材料均来源于实际生活,涉及的内容也是实际生活内容,强调语篇选材的真实性.   

2.该题所选的语段包括叙述文、说明文和议论文,继续保持了体裁的多样化,只有在日常学习过程中坚持多样化阅读的考生才能适应阅读理解试题在题材上的多样化.

    3,近年来的nmet阅读理解继续保持了较大的阅读量,该题要求考生准确而迅速地从特定语篇中有目的地获取信息.这1点对考生在大学的学习和将来的发展是:分重要的,接受高等教育的人都应具备尤其应当强调以英语的形式摄取专业信息.

    4.试题语料含有较高的信息量.阅读理解5个选篇都是以简约的语言负载高含量的信息,从语言运作的表层看,各段文字并不构成很大的理解困难,但是隐藏在表层结构下面的则是较复杂的信息,试题具有较高的区分度.

5.nmet阅读理解的5个选篇的语篇结构都具有较大的复杂性.各篇或在时间顺序上,或在空间顺序上,或在逻辑推理上,均适用了较高级的组篇手段,这种来源于真实语料的作品同考生平时在课本中接受的清楚明白的语段是很不1样的.

 

(3)高考阅读理解题型介绍:

1. 主旨题——考分辨和提纲挈领的能力

    主旨题是阅读理解中最常见的题型之1,测试阅读理解的基本能力;掌握所读材料的大意,这种题型考查学生在语言水平上对文章的把握:能否分辨主题和细节、是否具备提纲挈领的能力.解答这类题可以运用如下方法:

    1把握文章逻辑结构

    把握文章逻辑结构对于做主旨题很有帮助,因为文章主题出现的位置对应于文章逻辑结构中的1个部分.高考阅读理解文章的主要逻辑结构有:

    1)时间顺序.按时间先后说明某1理论的发展,或某1研究成果由过去至现在的情况.属于这种结构的主题通常在首段或末段.

    2)1般 1般.首段做总的说明,其他段落分别说明或具体论述首段的观点.属于这种结构的文章主题在首段.

    3)具体 1般.前面几段分别说明,末段总结.主题在末段.

    4)对比.进行对比的各事物之间的基本共同点或差异为主题.

    5)分类.分类说明的各大项相加为主题.

    2抓主题句

    主题句表达中心思想,其他句子均围绕它进行说明或议论.它在文章中的位置通常为第1段首句、第1段末句和全文末句等地方.所以阅读时对这些地方要特别关注.

    3概括段落大意

    4根据论述详略确定

    通常与主题有关的部分有较详尽的论述,而与主题关系不够密切的部分论述较简略.

    主旨题除了上述形式之外,还有如下变体:

    1标题

问标题的题也是1种主旨题,与主旨题的解题方法和技巧完全1样、2者的差别主要体现于选项的形式:主旨题的答案通常以1句话表示,而问标题的答案大多为1个名词词组.此外,标题必须反映文章的中心大意,而且只能反映文章的中心大意.这就要求选项的归纳范围要恰如其分,既不能只提及文中的1个细节,也不能将本文以外的内容概括于其中.

2写作目的

   写作目的与文章主题不同,但与它关系密切,所以也可以算做主旨题的1种变体.2者的异同可以从下面的对比中看出:文章主旨问中心思想、文章大意,而写作目的则阐述文章为何表达这个中心思想,等于文章大意+论述方法(或+作者口吻).文章大意可以根据前面所述的方法找到.至于论述方法,可以根据高考阅读理解的主体文章确定1些.

    advice…(建议,劝告)

    argue for…(论证),argue against…(驳斥)(这两种答案适用于议论文体裁)

    present…(阐述)

    propose…(建议)

    warn…(警告)

    既然全文的写作目的与文章的主旨密切相关,那么段落的写作目的也与段落的大意密切相关,只有反映了段落大意的答案才是段落的写作目的.

    3作者态度

解答作者态度(attitude)或语气(tone)题,关键在于把握作者对全文主体事物(与主题有关)或某1具体事物的态度.表达作者态度——褒义、中性和贬义的手段主要有:1)加入形容词定语;2)加入副词状语;3)特殊动词.英语中有些动词也表明说话者的正负态度,如;fail(未能)、ignore(忽视)、overestimate(估计过高)等动词表示1种负态度.由上可知,确定作者态度,可以有两种思路:问全文主体事物的(包括主题),可以根据阐述主题或有关主体事物的相关句中的形容词、副词或动词确定作者的态度;如果问的是对某1具体事物的态度,则可以定位到具体相关句,然后确定答案.

 

2.细节题——多种多样,细心对待

    所谓细节题,是指原文提到了某事物、现象或理论,题中针对原文具体叙述本身发问.这类题的表现形式多种多样,大致总结如下:

    1是非题

    出题形式:

    3正1误(3项正确,只有1项不符合原文内容):

    which of the following is true except...?

    which of the following is mentioned except...?

    3误1正(3项错误,只有1项符合原文内容):

    which of the following is true?

    解题方法:

    1)定位法

    根据题干或选项中的关键词回归原文,找到相关句,仔细阅读后与选项相比较确定答案.

    2)固定思路

这种做题方法主要与3正1误的下列问法相联系:

which of the following mentioned except...?

which of the following is not mentioned...?

这种问题的正确选项所包含的信息通常连续出现在同1段,而且往往无列举标志词,如first,second,third等.做题时只需阅读有关段落,根据1个选项中的关键词在其前后找其他两个正确选项,剩下1个原文中未提到的,为正确答案.

2例证题

例子为高考阅读理解的常见考点之1,这类题的基本结构为the author provides in line…(或paragraph…)an example in order to…意思是问文中举出某现象或例子的目的.高考阅读理解文章如果是说明文和议论文,文章中举出1些例子无非是为了说明1定的道理.关键在于这个例子在原文出现的位置,但不管如何,这个例子之前或之后不远处通常都有1句总结说明性的话,这句话就是答案,即举例的目的.如果例子与全文主题有关,则例证主题,答案为主题句.如果例子与段落主题有关,就例证段落主题,则答案为段落主题句;此外,答案为例子前后总结说明性的话.

 3其他形式的具体题

 1)定义

 定义可以分为两种;

   a.与主题有关的篇章定义,理解它有助于做主旨题.

   b.具体定义中对某个现象或术语加以定义,有时成为词义题的考试内容;

 2)年代与数字

 这个考点有几种出题方式,但不管以何种形式出现,只要题干问年代与数字,答案就对应于文章中的年代与数字,

 3)比较

 比较考点的表现形式主要有:

 a.比较级与含有比较意义的词汇手段和句型结构;

 b.表示绝对意义的字眼:

    first(第1),least(最不),uttermost(最)等;

 c. 表示惟1性的词汇:only,unique等;

 阅读最好能圈出表示最高级、惟1性和绝对意义的词汇,便于做题对回原文定位,,

 4)原因

 这种题的答案在原文通常有1些表示因果关系的词汇手段提示:

 a.表示因果关系的名词:result, reason;

 b. 表示因果关系的动词:result in(结果),result from(由于,由),base on...(以……为基础),be due to(由于);

 c.表示因果关系的连词或介词:because,for,why;

 d.表示因果关系的副词:consequently等,阅读时对这些提示词应该予以注意.

除了上述原文有因果关系提示词的显性原因考点之外,隐性原因(两个句子之间为因果关系,但无有关提示词)也是常见考点.不管是显性原因考点,还是隐性原因考点,原文相关句出现的格式都是先说原因,后说结果,而在题干中通常给出结果,就其原因提问.

 

3.词义题——学会推断

要做好这类题,首先必须熟练掌握中学英语教学大纲列出的约2000个词汇与1定数量的短文,这是最起码的要求.其次,掌握必要的做题技巧也很重要.不过词义题中所考单词的意义通常超出大纲,所以根据上下文推断词汇的能力在考试中显得尤其重要.这种能力可以通过下列几种方法加强:   

1破解词汇本身的意义

如何破解词汇本身的意义呢?方法之1是掌握构词法的基本知识.不仅平时可以用这个方法记忆大纲中的词汇,考试时也可以用这个方法推测词汇意义.假如对英语词汇中包含的前缀、后缀和词根的含义或功能比较了解,就能较准确地推测出它们相互组合形成的整体词义.

2利用上下文线索

除了以构词法破解词汇的意义以外,做词义题用得更多的方法是根据上下文所提供的线索判断词义.这里的上下文指该词所在的句子本身,也包括这个句子的上下句或更远的上下文.1般而言,上下文线索所提示的意义与所考词汇的关系要么为同义关系,要么为反义关系.假如2者为同义关系,那么所考词汇的意思就是线索提示词的意思;假如2者为反义关系,所考词汇的意思就是线索提示词的反义.

3利用语法和逻辑

有时根据上下文提供的线索或者其他方法,仍然不能得到惟1答案,就可以利用语法和逻辑方面的规则来判断,符合语法和逻辑规则的可能为正确答案,反之则不是正确答案.

4指代题

指代题作为词义题的1种,也是常见题型之1.解这类题,要注意代词指代总的原则——就近指代:代词指代在性(阴性或阳性)、数(单数或复数)、格(主格或宾格)、逻辑、意义、位置等方面与之接近的名词.就位置而言,如上所述,代词所指代的名词通常在本句或其上句之中;就数而言,单数代词指代单数名词,复数代词指代复数名词,例如:it指代单数名词(单数可数名词或不可数名词),也可指代1个句子;they指代复数名词主格;them指代复数名词宾格;one指代单数可数名词等.除了位置、性、数和格等方面的要求外,逻辑和意义也是衡量的标准,也就是说,正确的答案应该从意义(主要指语法搭配)上和逻辑(主要指思想内容)上而言都通顺.

 

4.推理题——考识别能力

推理题要求在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,作出1定判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐含意义和深层意义.推理题所涉及的内容可能是文中某1句话,也可是某几句话,但做题的指导思想都是以文字信息为依据,既不能做出在原文中找不到文宇根据的推理,也不能根据表面文字信息做多步推理.所以,推理题的答案只能是根据原文表面文字信息1步推出的答案:即对原文某1句话或某几句话所作的同义改写(paraphrase)或综合.推理题的目的是考识别能力,并不涉及复杂的判断和推理.因此,其主要做法是:根据题干中的关键词或选项中的线索找到原文的相关句,读懂后,比照选项,对相关句进行同义改写或综合概括的选项为正确答案.做题时要注意题干的语言形式,如according to the passage——it can be inferred from the passage that——; it can be concluded from the passage that---等,虽然从表面上看是问有关全文的题,但实际上不用看全篇,仍然只需要根据选项中的线索找到原文中与之相关的1句话或几句话,然后得出答案.针对推理题的不同形式,可以采取以下做法:

1假如题干中有具体线索,根据具体线索找到原文相关句(1句或几句话),然后做出推理;

2假如题干中无线索,如it can be inferred from the passage that…;it can be concluded from the passage that…等,先扫1下4个选项,排除不太可能的选项,然后根据最可能的选项中的关键词找到原文相关句,做出推理;

3如果1篇文章中其他题都未涉及文章主旨,那么推理题,如infer,conclude题型,可能与文章主旨有关,考生应该定位到文章主题所在位置(如主题句出现处);假如其他题已经涉及文章主旨,那么要求推断出来的内容可能与段落主题有关,果真如此,应该找段落主题所在处;如果不与段落主题有关,有时与全文或段落的重要结论有关,这时可以寻找与这些结论相关的原文叙述.

 

(4)做题时应注意的几点:

ⅰ.熟悉掌握nmet阅读理解选择题的特点及目的   

nmet阅读理解选择题主要由两部分组成.作为问题的主干和作为选择项的答案.其中主干是该题目的核心,许多学生为了迅速找到答案而匆匆地略看1下主干,往往容易忽略主干中的关键部分,从而导致答案错误.因为有些题目粗看起来似乎有几个正确答案,实际只有1个是测试者要你回答的.1般来说,评说性问题或推理性问题会出现这种情况:1些答案明显错误,1些答案正确,甚至所有的答案都有可能正确.在这种情况下,考生必须辩明哪个答案比其他答案更准确、更符合问题要求.因此,考生需要认真阅读问题,比较所给答案,排除只有部分正确的答案;从而得出最准确的结论.

ⅱ.注意nmet阅读理解的重点

1.注意每段文章的主题句及结论句,通常是每段

的首句或尾句(也有在中间的)

2.注意文章的细节

(1)数字与日期.

(2)同位语,破折号(——),括号(  ).

(3)表示附带说明的词如:by the way,furthermore,besides, in addition to等.

(4)倒装句及加强语气的词如;above all,mainly,chiefly等;

(5)注意全文谈何人(who)、何时(when)、何处(where)、何物(what)及特殊之处.

3.注意比较或对照

除全文的原级、比较级与最高级外,还应注意下列表示比较对照的词.如:

(1)对照:though, although, but, despite, in spite of,yet,however,still, otherwise, differ,unlike,on the other hand

(2)比较: same, like, compare similar, similarly

(3)例外:except,instead,rather than, on the contrary,oddly enough, regardless

4.注意所举之例及解释处

(1)举例:for example,for instance, such as, examples

(2)解释:in other words, just as, namely, that is to say,in the same manner

5.注意否定及包含全部的词

never, no none neither not, seldom, hardly, only, always,at all times, entirely every, forever, all

6.注意全文中表示因果关系的词

(1)原因:because, since, reason for, cause, result from

(2)结果:thus, so, as a result, therefore, hence, result in,in short,in conclusion

ⅲ.加强限时阅读训练:提高阅读速度

阅读速度和理解的准确性是阅读能力不可分割的两个方面.现行高中教学大纲对高中毕业生的阅读速度要求为50—60wpm.近几年的高考阅读理解篇幅加长,阅读信息量增大.不断加大了对阅读速度的考查力度.但不少同学由于平时缺乏训练,阅读速度慢,快速处理信息的能力差,无法适应高考的要求.为了改变这种状况,同学们在复习中应从下面两个方面着手提高阅读速度:1矫正不良阅读习惯.不少同学在阅读时常用手指着字,或复读(回读)、或声读,这样的习惯影响了阅读速度的提高,必须加以克服.在阅读时应把注意力放在语言意义上,把领会作者要表达的主要意思作为第1目的,加大“目光跨度”,以“意群”为阅读单位,培养良好的阅读习惯;并根据文章的不同体裁和形式采取相应的阅读方法和技巧.如故事性记叙文可采取“顺读法”,以便找准关键词句,领会主旨大意,而某些篇幅较长的应用文(如广告等)则可采取“逆读法”,先读理解题,从中把握题干预选项所含的重点信息,然后从短文中查找相关内容,以便排除干扰,快速准确地抓住信息点,增强解题的针对性了.2有针对性地进行限时阅读训练,养成在规定时间内完成短文的阅读、理解和答题的习惯.

2008年安徽高考真题

第3部分 阅读理解(共20小题;每小题2分,满分40分)

   阅读下列短文,从每题所给的4个选项(a、b、c、d)中,选出最佳选项.并在答题卡上将该项涂黑.

a

when i was a child, i often dreamed of the time when i could leave home and escape to the city. we lived on a farm, in the winter especially, we wear quite out off from the outside world. as soon as i left school, i packed my bags and moved to the capital. however, i soon discovered that my life has its  too.

    one big disadvantage is money. it costs so much to go out, not to mention basics like food and housing. another disadvantage is pollution. i suffer from asthma(哮喘), and  the air is so polluted that i am afraid to go outside. then there is the problem of traveling round. although i have a car, i seldom use it became of the traffic jams. one choice is to go by bicycle, but that can be quite dangerous.

    of course there are advantages. first, there is so much to do in the city, whatever you tastes in culture or entertainment(娱乐活动). besides, there are wonderful jobs and greater chances of moving to a more important job or position. finally, if you like shopping, the variety of goods is very surprising --- and , what is more, shops are often only a short walk away.

    is life better then, in the city? perhaps it is , when you are in your teens(:几岁)or twenties. however, as you get older, and especially if you have small children, the peace of the countryside may seem preferable. i certainly hope to move back there soon.

56. what was the writer always thinking about when he was a child?

   a. staying on the farm.                b. moving to the countryside.

   c. leaving home for the city.           d. running away from the school.

56. c.细节查找题.从短文的第1句话i often dreamed of the time when i could leave home and escape to the city.可知答案为c.

57. which of the following is true about the writer?

   a. he is very old now.            b. he is in good health.

   c. he prefers driving a car.         d. he lives in the city now.

57. d.细节查找题.短文最后1句i certainly hope to move back there soon. 句中的back there指的是上文的back in the countryside.

58. in the passage, the writer tries to __________.

   a. express his opinions about way of life      b. describe his life in the countryside

   c. an interest in the outside world      d. persuade the reader to live in the city

58. a.判断推理题.作者从多个方面表达自己对生活方式的看法.

59. how is the passage mainly developed?

   a. by inferring.         b. by comparing.       

c. by listing examples.   d. by giving explanations.

59. b.判断文体题.本文作者以对比的方式表达自己的观点.首先是对比城市生活的缺点和优点(disadvantage and advantage);然后把农村生活的宁静(the peace of the countrside)与城市作比较,表达出作者回归农村的愿望.

b

part-time front desk position

, a book development company, is looking for a part-time front desk office worker. this position is perfect for a person who is cheerful, dependable, and pleasant to work with. also, you should be able to welcome guests, redirect phone call, and take messages. more importantly, you can stay cool under pressure. you are expected to work 5:00--6:00 pm weekdays. you need to fill in some forms if you are interested.

                      forms can be collected at

                   866 united nations plaza, #525

                      new york, ny 10037

 

               important points to remember when swimming

.wait at least an hour after meals.

.follow the advice of lifeguards.

.don’t dive into unknown waters. always swim in line with the

.find out at the seaside when and where it is safe to swim.

.don’t use floating toys on the water. wind can easily sweep them out to sea.

.get out of the water if you feel tired or cold. cold can kill even strong swimmers.

                     help telephone:212-543-5902

                     atlantic city beach office

 

arrive on time.

introduce yourself in a polite manner.

read company materials while you wait.

have a firm handshake.

listen.

use body language to show interest.

smile and nod to the interviewers.

ask about the next thing you should do.

thank the interviewer.

write a thank-you letter to anyone you have spoken to.

                  for more information, please visit jobweb.com

                    368 cooper square, new york.

60. if you want to work in an office, where can you get the forms to fill in?

   a. jobweb.com

   b. atlantic city beach office.

   c. 368 cooper square, new york, ny

   d. 866 united, new york, ny 10017.

60. d.本题属于细节查找题.从第1则广告最后可以找到答案.forms can be collected at 866 united nations plaza, # 525 new york, ny 10037.

61. what does a person need most to be the one-hour weekday job?

   a. he should he cheerful, dependable, and easy-going.

   b. he has to work from monday to friday.

   c. he can remain calm in a difficult situation.

   d. he can welcome guests and deal with phone calls.

61. c.细节查找题.第1则广告more importantly, you can stay cool under pressure. 可知c是正确的.

 

62. according to the above information, what is the right thing to do when you swim ?

   a. to keep close to the beach.         b. to dive into unknown waters.

   c. to use floating toys on the water.     d. to swim soon after lunch.

62. a.细节查找题.第2则广告always swim in line with the shore.可知.

 

63. the best title for the last piece of information would be_________.

   a. tips on showing interest in a job         b. steps to a successful interview

     c. advice on introducing yourself politely       d. suggestions of body language in an interview

63. b.主旨大意题.第3则短文的行文顺序是面试开始到面试结束的每个程序.选项b意思是“1次成功面试的步骤”.

 

                                        c

     people believes that climbing can do good to health. where can you learn the skill of climbing then? if you think that you have to go to the mountains to learn how to climb, you’re wrong. many americans are learning to climb in city gyms(体育馆). here, people are learning on  climbing. the climbing wall goes straight up and small holding places for hands and feet.

    how do people climb the wall? to climb, you need special shoes and (保护带) around your chest to hold you. there are ropes(绳索)tied to your. the ropes hold you in place so that you don’t fall. a beginner’s wall is usually about 15 feet high, and you climb straight up. there are small pieces of metal that stick out for you to stand on and hold on to. sometimes it’s easy to see the new piece of metal. sometimes, it’s not. the most difficult is  your fear. it’s normal for humans to be afraid of falling, so it’s difficult not to feel fear. but when you move away from the wall, the and the ropes hold you, and you begin to feel safe. you move slowly until you reach the top.

    climbing attracts people because it’s good exercise for almost everyone. you use your whole body, especially your arms and legs. this sport gives your body a complete workout. when you climb, both your mind and your body can become stronger.

******. what can we infer from the passage?

   a. people are fairly interested in climbing nowadays.

   b. it is impossible to build up one’s body by climbing.

   c. people can only learn the skill of climbing outdoors.

   d. it is always easy to see holding places in climbing.

******. a.判断推理题.短文的第1段和最后1段分别有两句话:people believe that climbing can do good to health. climbing attracts people because it’s good exercise for almost everyone. 这也分别是每段的主题句.

 

65. the most difficult thing to do in wall climbing is _______.

   a. to tie ropes to your                b. to control your fear

   c. to move away from the wall         d. to climb straight up

65. b.细节查找题.第2段倒数第3行:the most difficult is to control you fear.

 

66. the word “workout” underlined in the last paragraph most probably means _________.

   a. settlement           b. exercise       c. excitement        d. tiredness

66. b.词义推断题.第3段第1句climbing attracts people because it’s good exercsie for almost everyone.这是本段的主题句.下文进1步谈到在进行攀岩时身体的这个部位得到全面锻炼.

 

67. why does the author write this passage?

   a. to tell people where to find gyms.       b. to prove the basic need for climbing

   c. to encourage people to climb mountains.   d. introduce the sport of wall climbing

67. d.判断推理题.全文谈到攀岩的地点、攀岩的注意事项、攀岩的好处等,总之,写作目的是向人们介绍攀岩这项运动.

 

                                     

 d

    some people think that as more and more people have televisions in their homes, fewer and fewer people will buy books and newspapers. why read an article in the newspaper, when the tv news can bring you the information in a few minutes and with pictures? why read the life story of a famous man, when a short television program can tell you all that you want to know?

   television has not killed reading, however. today, newspapers sell in very large numbers. and books of every kind are sold more than ever before. books are still a cheap way to get information and enjoyment. although some books with hard covers are expensive, many books are printed today as paperbooks (平装本), which are quite cheap. a paperback collection of short stories, for example, is always cheaper than an evening at the cinema or the theater, and you can keep a book for ever and read it many times.

   books are a wonderful provider of knowledge and pleasure and some types of books should be in every home. every home should have a good dictionary. a good encyclopedia (百科全书), though expensive, is useful, too, because you can find information on any subject. besides, you can have such books as history books., science textbook, cookbooks, and collections of stories and poems. then from time to time you can take a book of poems off your shelves and read the thoughts and feelings of your favorite poets.

68. it can be inferred from the passage that ________.

   a. tv programs are a chief provider of knowledge

   b. cinemas are the best choice in getting information

   c. reading is a cheap way of learning and having fun

d. newspapers are an expensive way to enjoy oneself

68. c.判断推理题.从第2段的最后几行可知.

 

69. what does the sentences “television has not killed reading, however ” underlined in the second paragraph suggest?

   a. people only need reading, though.         b. reading is still necessary today.

   c. reading is more fun than television.        d. watching television doesn’t help reading.

69. b.第2段第1句television has not killed reading, however.是本段的主题句.上文讲到人们看电视越来越多,行文到此,来1个转折,尽管如此,阅读在人们的日常生活中仍然是必需的.

 

70. what can we learn from the passage?

   a. fewer and fewer people will buy books.

   b. a good dictionary should be kept in every home.

   c. books with hard covers sell better than paperbooks.

   d. more people like tv programs about famous men.

70. a.总结归纳题.第1句…and some types of books should be in every home. 接下来详述在每1个家庭中常有哪些类型的书籍.

 

 

                                          e

    the small number of newborn babies, which has been caused by high prices and the changing social situation of women, is one of the most serious problems in asia. when people talk about it, you can hear a word invented in japan. which means double income kids(小孩).

    in many major asian cities like seoul, singapore, and tokyo, the cost of a ****** is extremely high. a young couple who want to buy their own house may have to pay about $3000,000 (though prices have fallen). for a flat with one bedrooms, one dining-room, a kitchen, and a bathroom, the couple will pay about $900 a month. what’s more, if they want to have a child, the child’s education is very expensive. for example, most kindergarten charges are at least $5.000 a year. in such a situation, it’s difficult to afford children.

    the number of married women who want to continue working because they enjoy their jobs. however, if they want to have children, they immediately have serious problems. though most companies allow women to leave their jobs for a short time to have a baby, they expect women with babies to give up their jobs. in short, if they want to bring up children properly, both parents have to work, but it is hard for mothers to work. indeed, women who want to contimue working have to choose between having children or keeping their jobs.

     in a word, asian governments must take steps to improve the present situation as soon as possible.

72. what is the main problem being discussed in the passage?

   a. the small number of newborn babies.

   b. the changing social situation of women.

   c. the high prices of houses and education.

   d. the necessary steps of asian government.

72. a.归纳总结题.第1段第1句the small number of newborn babies, … is one of the serious problems in asia. 这是全文的主题句,下句围绕这1主题展开.

 

73. according to the passage, which of the following is true?

   a. it is easy for a couple to afford a child in asia.

   b. the prices of in asia are quite low now.

   c. fewer and fewer married women wan to have a job.

   d. the word “dinks” appeared in an asian country.

73. d.细节查找题.从第1段的最后1句可知.

 

74. to buy a flat and send a child to kindergarten, how much will a couple pay each year?

   a. 85,000      b. 85,900      c. $10.800      d. $15.800

74. d.数据计算题.第2段说到每对夫妇每月要支付大约900美元的费用(…, the couple will pay about $ 900 a month).1年就是900*12=10800美元.最后1句…most kindergarten charges are at least $ 5, 000 a year. 这样,买1套公寓和供1个孩子上学,1对夫妇1年就要花15,800美元.

 

75. the seems to believe that asian governments should ________.

   a. let women stay at home and have a baby

   b. allow one of the parents to go out to work

   c. care for the growing needs of women for job.

   d. the companies that permit women to leave.

75. c.判断推理题.从短文的最后1段可知.

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