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高考英语语法讲座及练习(13)  

2009-03-09 08:15:03|  分类: 英语教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 简 单 句      

【要点提示】

1、感叹句:感叹句有两个基本句式句式:

   1)What + N. phrase + subject + be / v. !

      这里的名词短语有以下三种可能:a、 a / an + adj. + 名词单数   b、adj. + 名词复数   c、adj. + 不可数名词

e.g. What a lovely boy he is!  What sweet flowers they are!

   What cold weather it is!

   2) How + adj. + the + N.(单数、复数、不可数)+ subject + be / link-v.

e.g. How lovely the boy is!     How sweet the flowers are!

   How could the weather is!   How smooth the silk feels!

  另:上两种感叹句可以相互转换

有时, 在上下文明确的情况下,可以省略How后面的形容词。

e.g. How (fast / well)the students work!     How well / beautifully)she sings!

2、反意疑问句:

1) 反意疑问句一般遵循:前面肯定,反意部分否定、前面否定反意部分肯定的原则。

e.g. He likes playing football, doesn’t he? 

   You don’t watch TV in the evening, do you?

注:a、当前否后肯时,要注意它的答局的意思。

e.g. She doesn’t speak English, does she? 

Yes, she does.(不,她讲英语的)  No, she doesn’t. (是的,不讲)

   2)祈使句的反意部分用won’t you?/ shan’t we? 或will you?/ shall we? 但常用will you?/ shall we?

e.g  Lend me a hand, will you?   Let us pass through the room, will you?

    Don’t make any noise, will you?  Let’s play tennis now, shall we?

   3)含有否定意思的副词:hardly、no、not、never、seldom、little、scarcely 等,属于准否定词,用于句中时,该句即为否定句。

      e.g. He hardly goes home on Sundays, does he?

          The little boy seldom tells lies, does he?

但是像unfair、useless、impossible、dislike等词,虽然也有否定意思,但由于它们是在一个词前加前缀dis- / im- / un- 等或在词后加后缀 -less构成的,不属于准否定词。当这些词用于句中时,该句并不是否定句,即:反意部分仍然用否定式。

e.g. You dislike the way he speaks, don’t you?

   It is impossible to finish the work in three hours, isn’t it?

   4) must 表示推测时,反意部分用must后面的动词的相应助动词形式。

e.g. He must know both English and French, doesn’t he?

   She must have know the answer to the question, hasn’t she?

   They must have visited the farm last week, didn’t they?

  注意:a、Let me引起的祈使句,反意部分用will you? / won’t you? / may I。

        b、当陈述部分的主语是:—body或—one 构成的不定代词时,反意部分的主语用he或they;是—thing 时,用it。

        c、I am ….. 的反意部分用aren’t I?

 3、双宾语:有些英语动词可以接双宾语,句式为: subject + vt. + sb.(间接宾语)+ sth.(直接宾语) 英语中,能接双宾语的常用动词有:ask、promise、cause、play、leave、make、do、bring、buy、reach、order、teach、offer、serve、show、tell、wish…. 。

    e.g. Can I ask you a question, Sir?    She made me a model ship for my birthday.

    注:带双宾语的句子可以被改为 subject + vt. + sth(直接宾语)+ 介词 + sb. 的形式。

        其中的介词,常用的有:to、 for、 of ….。归纳如下:

hand owe pay post promise read return send show teach…

sth.

  to

  sb.

boil buy draw choose earn find gather order save sing …

  sth.

  for

  sb.

ask request demand

  sth.

of / from

  sb.

   另还有:play a joke / trick on sb ; play a game with / against sb.

   e.g.  Excuse me, you demand too much from / of me.

        May I ask a question of you?

4、句型:Subject + link-v. + n. / adj.

   在该句型中的系动词有特定含义,有“人称、数、时态”等形式变化。常用的有:

   显得:look , appear , seem                                                

   变得:become , come , fall , get , go , grow , run , turn

   持续是:continue , keep , remain , stand , stay

   听(闻、尝、摸)起来:sound, smell, taste, feel

   证明是:prove

   e.g. His words proved right.      The dish smells wonderful.

5、有些动词不表示动作,而表示事物的特性,用主动形式表示被动含义,这类动词有:   wash, write, sell, drive, feel, hang….等。

   e.g. Some pictures are hanging on the wall.

           This kind of car drive smooth and fast.

       The pen writes well so sells well.

 

【各个击破】

1. ______ nice weather it is! Let’s go out for a walk, shall we?               (04西城4月)

 A. How                  B. How a                    C. What a            D. What

2. —Nothing wrong with it, _____?                                  (04 南京质检)

  —No. Yours is a special-built model. Drive carefully, though. It takes time to run in a new car.

   A. is it                  B. has it               C. are they           D. is there

3. He had little idea that it was getting so late, _______?                    (04 长春调研)

   A. didn’t he         B. wasn’t it         C. did he                    D. was it

4. Polly must be unhappy without me, _____ she?

   A. must                B. is                            C. mustn’t           D. isn’t

5. I’m late, ____?

  A. am I           B. am not I          C. aren’t I           D. aren’t you

6. Let’s go to the cinema, ____?

  A. shall we             B. will you          C. will we            D. don’t we

7. —— She didn’t come to school yesterday, did she?

  —— ____, though she was not feeling very well.

   A. No, she didn’t B. Yes, she didn’t              C. No, she did    D. Yes, she did

8. —— Alice, you feed (喂) the bird today, ____ ?   

—— But I fed it yesterday.

   A. do you             B. will you   C. didn’t you             D. don’t you

9. The boy is unlike his mother, ____ he?

   A. is               B. isn’t         C. doesn’t    D. does

10. Do be careful when you cross the street, ____ you?

   A. don’t        B. aren’t             C. will         D. must

上期答案:

 状语从句:DBABC  DCACB   DCDBD

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