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高考英语语法讲座及练习(11)  

2009-03-07 16:49:22|  分类: 英语教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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名词性从句和定语从句

【考点点拨】

名词性从句可分为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

近几年高考对名词性从句的考查重点如下:

【考点1】名词性从句中引导词that与what的使用场合。

1. that 引导名词性从句时,不在从句中充当任何成分,只起连接作用;而what是连接代词,在从句中充当成分。

① ______ made the school proud was _______ more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities.                                                 (2003上海春季)

      A. What / because    B. What / that      C. That / what        D. That / because

2.that在主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中不可省略, 但当有两个和两个以上的宾语从句并列时,第二个从句以下的that不可省略。

如:She said (that) she had left school and that her parents would find her a job.

② Word comes ________ a group of Australian guests will come to visit our school next week.

     A. that                     B. which              C. 不填              D. about which    (2005天津·2月)

3.介词后的宾语从句常用what,whether引导,不用that,which引导。但在介词besides,except,in后可用that引导宾语从句。在有it作先行词时,that可用来引导介词后的宾语从句。

③ The other day, my brother drove his car down the street at ____ I thought was a dangerous speed.

       A. as                    B. which   C. what     D. that                  (2004上海春季)

【考点2】名词性从句中引导词whether与if 的用法区别。

引导及物动词或形容词后的宾语从句

可以互换的场合:          He is not sure if / whether he can manage to do it.

                    当与or not分开使用时

                         He wondered if / whether we will attend the meeting or not.

                                                     引导表语从句、同位语从句及位于句首的主语从句

只能用whether不能用if的场合:   引导介词后的宾语从句(有时可省略)

                                                     后面紧跟or not时

                                                     后面直接跟动词不定式时

④ _____ the flight to New York will be delayed is ____ I’m especially worried about. (2003南京)

    A. If ; what        B. Whether ; that              C. When ; that            D. Whether ; what

【考点3】在动词:一坚持(insist)、二命令(order,command)、三建议(suggest,advise,propose)、四要求(demand,require,request,ask)后的宾语从句和这些动词的过去分词后的主语从句,以及这些动词的名词引出的表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语部分常用(should)do形式。

⑤ I advised that he _____ to the hospital at once, but he insisted that he _____ quite well then.

A. be sent; was feeling            B. was sent; sent

C. be sent; feel                        D. should be sent; should feel          (2005年山东·2月)

【考点4】名词性从句的语序只能是陈述句语序,宾语从句的时态应该与主句的谓语动词的时态保持一致。

⑥ They are teachers and don’t realize ______ to start and run a company.        (2004 黄冈)

       A. what takes it          B. what they take              C. what takes them           D. what it takes

【考点5】whoever,whichever,whatever,whenever,wherever和however在引导名词性从句时不可与no matter who / which / what/ when/ where / how 替换,因为后者只能引导让步主语从句。

⑦ —— Have a nice trip!

   —— Thanks. I’ll telephone you from _____ I get to by tomorrow evening.    (2004 广州)

     A. wherever     B. every place      C. whenever     D. no matter where

定语从句可分为限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句。

高考对定语从句的考查常涉及以下几个方面:

【考点6】正确区别限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的结构;理解关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中的作用;特别注意指代整个主句内容的关系代词which引导的非限制性定语从句。

⑧ I shall never forget the day _____ Shenzhou V was launched, _____ has a great effect on my life.

     A. when; which              B. that; which            C. which; that            D. when; that (2004北京东城)

【考点7】关系代词that,who,which以及as的用法区别。

指人时常只用who不用that的情况;

指物时只用which不用that的情况;

只用that不用which的情况;

关系代词as与which的用法区别;

the same … that … 与the same … as …的区别

⑨ There is no such place ______ you dream of in all this world.        (2004北京西城·5月)

    A. that                      B. what               C. which                     D. as

【考点8】区别that引导的定语从句与that引导的同位语从句。that引导同位语从句时,that是纯连词,在从句中不充当任何成分;that引导定语从句时,that是关系代词,在从句中充当主语或宾语等。

 比较:

          The news that they had won the game arrived soon.

          The news that you told me yesterday is true.

⑩ Is this the reason _____ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?      (2002上海春季)

    A. he explained                B. what he explained

    C. how he explained        D. why he explained

【考点9】定语从句中谓语动词须与先行词在人称与数上保持一致。

⑾ He is the only one of the students who ________ a winner of scholarship in three years. 

A. is            B. are           C. have been             D. has been                    (2002上海春季)

【考点10】在先行词为time,place,reason时,常可用that代替when,where,why,并常常省去。

如:That was the reason (that) / why / for which he left home.

⑿ What surprised me was not what he said but _______ he said it.               (2004湖北)

    A. the way               B. in the way that             C. in the way              D. the way which

【趋势】近几年高考对名词性从句的考查日趋灵活,多以考查名词性从句的引导词为主,并且常与定语从句和状语从句等相关知识结合起来考查。

 

答案:BACDA  DAADA  DA

【各个击破】

1.The boy dived into the water and after _____ seemed to be a long time, he came up again.

     A. what               B. that                 C. it                     D. which

2.These two areas are similar _____ they both have a high rainfall during this season.

     A. except that         B. in which          C. in that                 D. so that           

3.You may depend on ______ that all the goods will be shipped abroad in time.

       A. which             B. it                     C. whom                    D. these

4.Scientists believe native Americans arrived by crossing the land bridge that connected Siberia and ________ more than 10,000 years ago.

    A. this is Alaska                             B. Alaska is now       

C. is now Alaska                             D. what is now Alaska

5.Look at the watch. Don’t you see it is ______ watch _______ Helen lost the other day?

    A. as the same ; as           B. the same ; as          C. the same ; which           D. as the same ; that

6.The British are not so familiar with different cultures and other ways of doing things, ______ is often the case in other countries.

    A. as                  B. that                 C. so                   D. it

7._____ was known to them all that Bob had broken his promise _____ he would give them a rise.

    A. As; which             B. What; that                    C. It; that                   D. It; which

8.That is the reason ______ he gave us for carrying out the plan.  

    A. because                B. why                C. how                D. that

9.Was it in the village ______ we used to live in ______ the accident happened?

    A. where; that           B. which; that            C. that; where            D. where; which

10.The hours _______ the children spend in their one-way relationship with television people undoubtedly affected their relationship with real-life people.

     A. that                     B. when        C. in which          D. on which

11.Mr. Smith will move into his new house next Sunday, ____ it will be completely finished.

     A. on that time        B. by which time        C. on which         D. by the time

12.In the book, Newton is shown as a gifted scientist who stood at the point in history ______ magic ended and science began.

     A. where                 B. when               C. that                 D. which

13.The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point ______ he can walk correctly and safely.

     A. when                  B. where                            C. which                     D. whose

14.The question of _____ they are old or young is not important.

    A. /                   B. whether                 C. how                D. if

15.Earth is a rocky planet ________ liquid water, which is necessary for life, can exist.

A. as                    B. which                     C. where                     D. when

上期答案:

非谓语动词:CCCBC  BBBDC  DBBBC   CDCC

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