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高考英语语法讲座及练习(10)  

2009-03-06 22:31:15|  分类: 英语教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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非谓语动词          

非谓语动词有三种形式:动词不定式、分词、动名词

一、动词不定式                                       

【要点点拨】动词不定式表现为两种形式:to do 或 do,在句中可作:

1、主语: To build the bridge needs much money.

    一般用 It作形式主语放在句首,把不定式短语放于句末。

          It doesn’t make any difference whether you go today or tomorrow.

2、表语: Their task is to build a railway in a year.

3、宾语: The child pretended to be sleeping / asleep when I came back home.

    注意:当不定式作宾语,其后接补语时,我们常用it 作形式宾语,把不定式宾语放于补语之后。

          We think it possible to finish the work in a week. 

4、定语:表示一个未发生的动作,放于被修饰的名词之后。

        The building to be built will be used as a hospital.

5、状语:1)目的状语:常见形式有:to…. / in order to…. / so as to….

        We got up early in order to catch the first bus.

                2)结果状语:常见形式有: too…. to… / so….as to…. / only to….

        Would you be so kind as to help me with my English?

                He returned home 15 years later, only to find his house burnt down.

6、补语:1)宾补: He asked me to do work with him.

         2)主补: She was often heard to sing the song while doing housework.

7、独立结构,在句中作插入语。常用的有:to tell the truth , to be frank , to make things worse…

 

二、分   词:

【要点点拨】分词可分为:现在分词和过去分词两类。

现在分词: 现在分词和现在分词短语在句中可作:

1、定语:单个的现在分词作定语一般放于被修饰的名词前,现在分词短语作定语应放被修饰的名词后,现在分词及现在分词短语作定语时均可以发展为一个定语从句。

        The girl reading over there (The girl who was reading over there) soon fell asleep.

2、状语:现在分词作状语可分为:一般式(doing):表示分词动作与谓语动作同时发生;完成式(having done):表示分词动作发生于谓语动作之前。

                 The old man passed away, leaving a lot of debts unpaid.

            Having finished (After he had finished) his exercises, he went to play basketball.

3、补语:现在分词作宾语补语,表示宾语的一个正在进行的动作,用于一些常见句型中:

         see / hear / feel / notice / have / catch / leave / set / send…. sb. doing sth.

         The salesman caught the thief stealing in the shop.

4、表语:现在分词作表语,表示主语的特点,可以看作形容词,是形容词化的现在分词。

        The film was very interesting.

5、独立结构:现在分词短语作独立结构时,是固定说法,不以主动、被动去分析。常见的有:generally speaking, judging from/by, considering…

       Generally speaking, he is quite skillful at playing table tennis.

过去分词:过去分词和过去分词短语在句中可作:

1、定语:单一的过去分词作定语一般放于被修饰的名词前,过去分词短语作定语放于被修饰的名词后,过去分词及过去分词短语作定语均可以发展为一个定语从句。

        The broken window (The window which was broken) will be replaced soon.

                The books bought yesterday ( which were bought yesterday) are of high quality.

        过去分词短语作定语有三种时态:done….:表示动作已发生;to be done:表示动作将要发生;being done:表示动作正在发生。对比以下三句:

                The bridge built last year (which was built last year) is very beautiful.

                The bridge to be built next month (which will be built next month) will be very long.

                The bridge being built (which is being built) will be completed next month.

2、状语:过去分词短语作状语可分为:一般式(done):表示分词动作与谓语动作同时发生或分词动作发生于谓语动作前;完成式(having been done):强调分词动作发生于谓语动作之前。

Scolded ( As she was scolded) by the teacher, the girl sat there without lifting her head.

   Having been kept (As he had been kept) in prison for many years, he went mad.

3、补语:过去分词作宾语补语,表示宾语与补语存在被动关系,且常用于have something done / get something done / make oneself done ….等句型中。

e.g. Yesterday he had his watch fixed at the watch-maker’s.

4、表语:过去分词作表语,表示主语的状态,且该状态通常是由外界因素引起的。这时过去分词可以被看作一个形容词,是形容词化的过去分词。

    e.g.      I’m interested in reading novels written by Jin Yong.

注:分词短语作状语,其逻辑主语必须是主句的主语,如果分词的逻辑主语并不是主句

的主语,而另有其逻辑主语,则应在分词前补上其逻辑主语,构成独立主格结构。

独立主格结构相当于一个状语从句。

    e.g. The baby sleeping (As the baby was sleeping)in the room, we dared not turn up the TV.

 

三、动  名  词

【要点点拨】动名词是由动词后+ing的形式构成的,与动词的现在分词同形。它保留了动

词的特征,即:它可以带自己的宾语和状语,又具有名词的特征。

1、主语: Studying English well is no easy job.

   注意:1)在下面一些结构中,常用it作形式主语,将用作真实主语的动名词放于句末。

          It is no use / no good / useless / nice / good / fun / interesting ….+ doing sth.

         It’s good hearing Chinese, my mother tongue, spoken here.

                 2)动词不定式作主语和动名词作主语的区别:动词不定式作主语表示一个具体的动作,而动名词作主语则表示一个抽象的、一般的概念。

         Reading English in the morning is of great use for students.

                     To read this English book will take much time.

2、表语:动名词作表语是对句子主语的一种说明,主语和动名词可以交换位置,句子的意思不变。这有别于进行时:进行时句中用的是现在分词,表示主语的一个正在进行的动作,主语与现在分词不能交换位置。

            What he likes most is playing football. = Playing football is what he likes most.

                    He is playing football with his friends.

3、宾语:动名词作宾语,表示一种习惯、爱好。

         He likes smoking while I like drinking.

     注意:动词不定式作宾语,表示一个具体的动作,不表示习惯。

        I like smoking, but I don’t like to smoke today, for I’ve got a cold.

     有些动词后面不用不定式作宾语,而只用动名词作宾语,请记住以下口诀:memepscarfi: 音译成:妹妹不吃咖啡。这里每个字母代表一个或几个单词:m-miss e-enjoy ; m-mind ;e-escape; p- practise; s- suggest / stand; c- consider / complete; a-admit / allow /advise / appreciate / avoid; r- risk; f- finish ; i- imagine,常用的词都列在里面了。

      I highly appreciate your helping the old lady.

动名词还作介词宾语。 I don’t feel like going to the station to meet the guests.

4、定语:动名词作定语,放于被修饰的名词前,表示该的名词的功能,并不表示动作。

      e.g. a sleeping bag = a bag for sleeping  /    an operating table = a table for operating

    区别:现在分词作定语,表示被修饰的名词的一个动作。

      e.g. a sleeping boy = a boy who is sleeping  /  the running car = the car that is running

 另:1) 动名词的复合结构(one’s doing):表示动名词动作的发出者,在句中可作主语和宾语。动名词的复合结构作宾语时,可以用宾格代替所有格。

   e.g.   We like Tom’s (Tom) singing the English song.

        The little boy’s crying drew our attention.

     2) 有些动词后面既可跟动词不定式,又可跟动名词作宾语,注意它们的不同意思。

      

doing sth                

to do sth                 

remember

记得做过某事,(动作已发生)

记得去做某事(动作未发生)

   forget

忘了做过某事(动作已发生)

忘了去做某事(动作未发生)

   regret

后悔过去做过的事

遗憾地去做事

   mean

意味着做某事

   意欲、打算做某事

    try

试着做某事(看会发生什么)

努力、设法、企图做某事

    stop

        停止做某事

停下来去做另一事

  go on

继续原来的事

接着做另一件事

can’t help

禁不住、情不自禁地做某事

无法帮助去做某事

   learn

学会做某事

学着、开始学做某事

need / want/require

某事需要被做(= to be done)

需要做某事(主动意思)

 

【各个击破】

1. At the shopping center, he didn’t know what ____ and ____ with an empty bag.

  A. to buy ; leave            B. to be bought ; left C. to buy ; left     D. was to buy ; leave

2. The long and tiring talk, filled with arguments and quarrels, ended in disorder, _____ no agreement at all.

  A. arriving                     B. arrived at        C. reaching          D. and getting to

3. Do you know the difficulty he had ______ five children at school?

  A. to keep                     B. to have kept    C. keeping           D. having kept

4. ——Let me tell you something about my Chinese teacher.

   —— I remember _____ about her yesterday.

  A. telling                B. being told              C. to tell                     D. having told

5. Having no money but ____ to know, he simply said he would go without dinner.

  A. not to want anyone B. wanted no one C. not wanting anyone D. to want no one

6. The old lady needed ___ as she was in her 80s.

  A. to look after             B. looking after   C. look after        D. being looked after

7. ——Why are you always making me drink milk?

   —— ______ enough calcium for you to grow tall and strong.

  A. Get                    B. To get                    C. Getting           D. To be getting

8. Many students _____ around, I explained the story into details.

  A. stood                 B. standing          C. to stand          D. were standing

9. He has few friends and never mind ______ alone, playing by himself.

  A. leaving               B. having                    C. to be left         D. being left

10. I explained the theory as clearly as possible, ____ to make it easy _____ .

   A. hope ; to understand                          B. hoped ; understood

   C. hoping ; to understand                       D. to hope ; to be understood

11. The students listened carefully, with their eyes ____ the blackboard.

   A. fixing at           B. fixed at           C. fixing on         D. fixed on

12. _______ to go with the others made him rather disappointed.

   A. His not allowed      B. His not being allowed C. Not his allowing D. Having not been allowed

13. I was very poor when young and had no toys _______ .

   A. to play                    B. to play with           C. with playing   D. playing with

14. He went to bed _____ . The next morning he woke up only ____ himself lying on the floor.

   A. drinking ; to find    B. drunk ; to find       C. being drunk ; finding  D. to drink ; finding

15. We can hardly imagine Peter _____ such rude words to you.

   A. say                   B. to say                     C. saying                    D. to have said

16. I’d like my child _______ in a school of high quality.

   A. educating        B. to educate              C. to be educated       D. being educated

17. My son pretended _______ when I came back.

   A. to sleep           B. sleeping          C. being sleeping D. to be sleeping

18. Tom is thought ______ the good deed to the blind man.

   A. of doing          B. to do               C. to have done   D. of being done

19. The stranger has spent a whole week ______ in his room. No one knows what he is doing.

   A. locking           B. to lock                   C. locked                    D. being locked

上期答案:虚拟语气:BCAAB  BBDCA  CCDDB

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