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高考英语语法讲座及练习(7)  

2009-03-03 13:51:28|  分类: 英语教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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动词时态、语态 

【要点点拨】

一、时态

(一)现在进行时用法注意点:

1.状态性动词不用进行时态,包括(1)be和have,或者含有be 和have意义的动词,如:belong to, contain, depend on, own, possess等;(2)feel, sound, smell, taste等连系动词;(3)hear, see, find等表示结果的动词;(4)表示心理或情感状态的动词,如:believe, love, want, understand, wish等;

2.进行时态和副词always, forever等连用时,往往带有一定的感情色彩,如赞扬、批评、不满、抱怨等;

(二)一般过去时与过去进行时的区别:

1.过去进行时表示动作的未完成性、持续性,着眼于动作的过程;一般过去时表示动作的完成,即动作发生过,且已结束,着眼于结果;如:

She was writing a report last night and I don’t know if she has finished it.(表示昨晚一直在写)

She wrote a report last night.(表示昨晚写了,并且写好了)

2.过去进行时与always, forever等词连用表示一定的感情色彩;

He was always throwing things about. (表示不满或讨厌)

(三)将来时的几种表达:

 

A

B

C

D

be going to

表示“计划、打算、安排将要做的事”时,主语只能是人

说话人说话之前已考虑过的

主语是物时,表示说话人根据某种迹象主观推测可能发生的事

不能用于含有条件句的主句中

will

表示将要发生某事或主语的“意愿”

说话人说话时刻才考虑到的

表示客观规律必然发生的

可用于含有条件句的主句或从句中表示“意愿”

be to

表示安排、计划要做的事

与第二人称连用,表示转述第三者的话

表示命令,相当于should / must

表示“能”“该”“想要”“注定、不可避免”

be about to

表示动作马上发生;句中不能再加at once, immediately和表示具体时间的词语;常有“be about to…..when”结构;

还可用一般现在时、现在进行时表示将来发生的动作;

(四)将来进行时与将来完成时:

1.将来进行时表示将来某一时刻发生的动作,结构为:will / shall be doing

2.将来完成时表示到将来某时刻某动作已发生,结构为:will / shall have done,时间状语为:by+表将来时间的词语;

如:I’ll be climbing the mountain this time the day after tomorrow.

By the time he graduates from the college, he will have learned three foreign languages.

(五)现在完成时及过去完成时的用法注意点:

1.瞬间性动词与延续性动词的正确使用:与how long, for, since等表示一段时间的状语连用时须用延续性动词,如:buy-have, keep-borrow, die-be dead, marry-be married, begin-be on, begin to know-know等;

2.注意have / had been to与have/ had gone to的区别;

3.现在完成时用在时间、条件等状语从句中,表示从句中的动作在主句动作前完成,如:

If it has stopped snowing in the morning, we’ll go to the park.

4.by+过去时间状语用过去完成时;

5.有些动词的过去完成时表示过去未曾实现的意图、打算或希望,这类动词为:think, plan, mean, intend, hope, expect, suppose等;

I had intended to visit you yesterday, but the rain prevented me.

(六)现在/过去完成进行时的用法:强调动作延续到说话时且还在进行;结构:have (has) / had been doing

比较:They have repaired the road.(表示路已修好)

They have been repairing the road. (表示路还在修)

有时两者可替换:She has taught in this middle school for ten years.

                She has been teaching in this school for ten years.

注意:完成进行时不可与瞬间性动词连用,如:finish, go, marry等;

(七)某些固定句型中时态是固定的:

1.This / That / It is the first time +从句(用现在完成时)

2.It’s / has been +一段时间+since从句(用过去时)

3.Hardly / No sooner had sb. done when / than +从句(用过去时)

4.It will be +一段时间+before从句(用一般现在时)/ It was +一段时间+before从句(用过去时)

5. It’s time+从句(用过去时或should do)

6.would rather+从句(用一般过去时/过去完成时)

It’s getting late. I’d rather you took a taxi there.

The film was boring. I’d rather I hadn’t gone to see it.

二、语态

1.动词sell, write, read, open, lock, shut, wear, wash, keep, cook, cut, burn, run等与well, smoothly, easily等连用时,说明主语内在的“性能”“特点”,用主动代替被动;

2.表示状态特征的连系动词如smell, taste, feel, sound, look, prove等用主动语态表示被动意义;

3.不及物动词及一些固定短语不能用被动语态:come up, run out(用完), give out(耗尽), go out(熄灭), come out(出版), come to light, belong to, break out, lose heart, die out, own, have, possess, happen, occur等;

4.当want, require, need作“需要”解,后接doing/ to be done作宾语,此时动词do与主语为动宾关系;

5.be worth后接doing作宾语,用主动形式表示被动意义;

6.不定式to let(出租), to blame(该受责备)表示被动意义;

7.在“主语+be+形容词(for sb.)+to do”结构中,to do用主动形式;

8.在“主语+谓语+宾语(名词)+动词不定式to do(作定语修饰前面的名词,且为动宾关系;主语与to do为主谓关系时,此动词不定式用主动形式;如:

I have a meeting to attend.

 

【各个击破】

1.      ------I took a photo of you just now.

-----Really? I _______ with attention.

A. didn’t look   B. wasn’t looking  C. am not looking  D. haven’t looked

2.      ------You haven’t said a word about my new hair-style. What do you think of it?

-----I’m sorry I _______ anything about it sooner. I certainly think it’s pretty.

A. don’t say   B. wasn’t saying   C. didn’t say   D. haven’t said

3.      ------Can I help you, Madam?

-------No, thanks. I __________________.

A. have just looked around    B. just look around

C. am just looking around    D. just looked around

4.      ------That famous cherry trees _________ because of pollution.

-----Yes, we have to do something to save it.

A. has died   B. had died   C. is dead    D. is dying

5.      She ought to stop reading; she has a headache because she _______ too long.

A. had read   B. read   C. is reading   D. has been reading

6.      ------You’re talking too much.

-------Only at home. No one ______ me but you.

A. is hearing   B. had heard    C. hears    D. heard

7.      -------What have you been doing? I asked you a question. Why didn’t you answer?

-------Sorry, I ___________ to the news on the radio.

A. listened   B. have listened    C. was listening   D. had listened

8.      -------You should have told him the date earlier.

-------I_______, but he forgot about it.

A. did    B. have    C. had    D. should have

9.      ------You could have asked Tom for help, for he is good at physics.

-----Really? Oh, a whole night __________. Why didn’t you tell me earlier?

A. is wasted   B. was wasted   C. had wasted   D. has wasted

10.  The thief tried to break away from the policeman who __________ him but failed.

A. held   B. had held   C. would hold   D. was holding

11.  You _________exercises at your desk! Why not take some exercise?

A. always do   B. are always doing  C. have always done  D. have always been doing

12.----What were you up to when she dropped in?

  ----I ____ for a while and ____some reading.

A. was playing; was going to do   B. played; did

C. had played; was going to do    D. had played; did

13.Until then I _______ for him for hours in his office.

A. waited   B. was waiting   C. have been waiting  D. had been waiting

14.  -----Did you see Marty in the manager’s office?

-----Yes, he ______ by the manager.

A. is questioned   B. was being questioned  C. had been questioned   D. was questioned

15.  Look at this ! I _______ some magazines and _______ this card!

A. was looking through; found   B. am looking through; had found

C. looked through; had found    D. had looked through; finding

16.  ------Tom’s wife took the place of him to attend the conference.

-------I would rather Tom _______ there, not his wife.

A. had been   B. have been    C. was   D. went

17.  -------Listen!

------I _______ but I _________ anything at all.

A. listened; have heard   B. have listened; hear

C. was listening; wasn’t hearing  D. am listening; don’t hear

18.  The shop assistant promised me that the material ______ and what she said ______ to be true.

A. would be dried easily ; was proved   B. will be dried easily; was proved

C. dried easily; proved               D. was dried easily; proved

19. -----What place is it?

  -----Haven’t you seen that we _____ back where we ______?

A. were, had been   B. are, were  C. were, have been   D. are, had been

上期答案:

 形容词和副词:DBCAC  AAAAB  ACDCC  BDBBB  BBBAD  CCCCB

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