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高考英语语法讲座及练习(6)  

2009-03-02 10:51:12|  分类: 英语教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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形容词和副词    

【要点点拨】

一: 形容词

1.作定语

1). 多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:

限定词(冠词、指示代词、人称代词、数词等)+描绘性形容词(beautiful, interesting…)+大小、长短、高低+形状+年龄、新旧+颜色+国籍、地区、出处+材料性质+用途、类别+名词中心词。

a charming big round new black French wooden writing desk

the man’s first two interesting little red French oil paintings

2) 定语后置

A)形容词短语作定语

a language difficult to master, a leaning tower about 180 feet high

B)表语形容词(afraid、alike、alone、asleep、awake、alive等)作定语,定语后置。如a child asleep, the greatest man alive

C) 修饰由不定代词one、no、any、some和every构成的复合词如anything、something等时 eg. Is there anything interesting in today’s newspaper?

D)else常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。What else do you know?

E)enough、nearby修饰名词前置或后置,但修饰形容词、副词时,必须后置。

2. 作表语

1)系表结构。 与系动词 be,grow,get,become,feel,appear,prove,seem,look,keep. smell,taste,sound,turn,remain  , go, come,  stay, stand, run, prove等连用

2)表语形容词。常见的有以a-起首的afraid、alike、alone、asleep、awake、alive以及well , ill(生病) ,fond, sorry, unable, worth, glad, sure 等

注意:以a-起首的词除了作后置定语外还作补语。eg. Keep the fish alive

修饰以a-开头的形容词,多有特殊的修饰词:quite alone, very much alone, wide awake, fast / sound asleep, very much afraid

 3. 作状语

形容词或形容词短语表示伴随状况、原因、结果等。例如:

        He went to bed, cold and hungry.

        Afraid of troubles,he would not accept the duty.

4. 复合形容词

1)形容词 + 名词 + ed   kind-hearted好心的,fair-haired金发的

2)形容词 + 形容词   red-hot炽热的,dark-blue深蓝的

3)形容词 + 现在分词  good-looking好看的,easy-going随和的

4)副词 + 现在分词   hard-working勤劳的,fast-moving快速转动的

5)副词 + 过去分词  hard-won得来不易的,newly-made新建的

6)名词 + 形容词   life-long终生的,world-famous世界闻名的

7)名词 + 现在分词   peace-loving爱好和平的,fun-loving爱开玩笑的

8)名词 + 过去分词  snow-covered白雪覆盖的,hand-made手工的

9)数词 + 名词 + ed   four-storeyed 4层楼的,three-legged 3条腿的

10)数词 + 名词(名词用单数)  ten-year 10年的,two-man两人的

 

二:副词

1.频度副词如often, always, usually, sometimes, seldom, never, rarely, frequently, occasionally等在be动词、助动词、情态动词后,行为动词前。eg.

We usually go shopping once a week./ He is always ready to help others.

   2。多个副词同时出现的顺序

方式副词+地点副词+时间副词  /  小的时间/地点+大的时间/地点

三:比较形容词和副词

1.   形容词+ly, 有时会构成意义完全不同的副词

   hard(困难的)—hardly(几乎不)  dead(死的)—deadly(致命的)

late(晚的)—lately(最近)    fair(公平的)—fairly(相当)

2.注意:有些副词有两种形式,一个与形容词同形,一个以 ly结尾,但它们的含义是不同的.例如:

        l) close接近地    closely仔细地,密切地

        2) free免费地    freely自由地,无拘束地

        3) hard努力地    hardly几乎不

        4) late晚,迟    lately近来

        5) most极,非常    mostly主要地

        6) wide广阔地,充分地    widely广泛地

        7) high高    highly高度地,非常地

        8) deep深,迟    deeply抽象意义的“深”

        9) loud大声地  loudly大声地(含有喧闹的意思)

     10) near邻近    nearly几乎

 3.以-ly结尾的形容词:lively、lonely、lovely、deadly、friendly、ugly、silly、likely、brotherly、manly、timely等。eg. (×) He spoke to me very friendly.(∨) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

四:比较级和最高级

1.      构成 :

大部分双音节词、加后缀构成的词(如slowly, useful)、源于分词的形容词(如tired)、所有的多音节词,加more构成比较级,加the most构成最高级, 副词的最高级可省去the.请注意:作表语的形容词最高级前,如果不是和别人、他物相比,常不加the.

eg. We are busiest on Monday.

2.修饰比较级、最高级的程度词

1)       even / still / rather

much / far/  a lot/ a great  deal     +比较级

a little/ a bit

We are working still harder now.  现在我们工作更加努力。

2) 数词+ 名词+比较级

eg. He is two inches taller than his father. 

他比他爸爸高两英寸。(或说He is taller than his father by two inches. )

She could not take a step further.  她一步也不能走了。

3) 比较级+by far

在前面,应在二者中间加“ the”.如: He is taller by far than his brother.

                                             He is by far the taller of the two brothers.

4) the second/ third       +最高级

  by far

    3. 无比较级和最高级的形容词

有些形容词本身含义无程度差别,因此没有比较级和最高级.常见的有:right, wrong, perfect, possible, impossible, mistaken, dead, favourite等。这些词不能被程度副词修饰,但可以被quite(完全地),completely等修饰。eg. quite right/ impossible, completely dead.

4. 和冠词连用

  the +形容词原级+v(复),指一类人或物

  the + 形容词比较级,指两者中“较…的”的那一个,eg. the younger of the two

    a/ an +形容词比较级eg. The pen is expensive. I want a cheaper one.

    ( a) +most+形容词最高级 “非常…” eg. a most beautiful city

5. 相关结构

1)      原级比较:肯定句 as….as…., 否定句not so / as….as…..

2)      比较句: 比较级 +than….或more (less) ….than…..

The furniture in this shop is less beautiful than that in that shop.(注意代词that的用法)

3)      比较级+ and+比较级 或 more and more+比较级 “越来越… ”

richer and richer, more and more interesting

4)      The  more….., the more…..“越…, 越…”

The more you look at the picture, the better you  will like it.

      5) 比较级+than  any other +n. (单)     (适用于范围一致时)

                  (all) other +n.(复)

                  any +n.(单)  (适用于范围不一致时)

     He is taller than  any other student / all other students in his class.

                    any student in my class.

6) 倍数表达法。

A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.

A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B.

A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B.

用times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用twice或double.

The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one.这座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍(高三倍)。

Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲比欧洲大三倍。

Your school is three times bigger than ours.你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。

7) more…than…结构,其意往往是…rather than…,可译为“是……而不是……”或颠倒词序译作“与其说是……,不如说是……”。

That little girl is more tired than hungry.  那个小姑娘是累了而不是饿了。

She is more a mother than a wife或She is more of a mother than a wife.

她是贤妻,更是良母。

8) A is to B what C is to D  A和B的关系就像C和D的关系

    Air is to man what water is to fish. 空气 对于人类就像水和鱼的关系。

9)  no more than= only  “只不过”,言其少

not more than=at most  “不多于”,“至少”,指事实。

   no more …than… 和…一样不…     如单音节使用比较级形式

   not more…than…  不比…更…

  no less than= as much as       “多达”

   no fewer than= as many as

eg.  I have no more than five yuan in my pocket.  我口袋里的钱只不过5元。

I have not more than five yuan in my pocket.  我口袋里的钱不多于5元。

         He is no richer than I.他和我一样穷。

He is no less determined than you.  他的决心不亚于你。(no less determined than等于“其决心不亚于你”,言其大)

He is not less determined than you.  他的决心不比你小。(not less determined than等于“其决心不小于”,无言其大或小的含义)

10) 最高级+of/ in/ among….

  He is the tallest of the three/ among them/ in is class.

五.相关词语辨析

1.very 和much

A)very修饰形容词、副词的原级;,much修饰比较级; 修饰动词用much或very much ,eg. I very like English.(×),因改为:I like English very much.

B)表示状态的过去分词前用very。a very frightened boy, a very tired child .一般的情况下,以-ing、-ed结尾的分词多用much、very much / greatly等修饰。如:We were greatly /much shocked by the news about Tom..  

C)已转化为形容词的现在分词前用very。如:very interesting / worrying / exciting

D)too前用much/ far ,不用very。You are much / far / a lot too nice.另外,在too many    / much, too few / little前用far。 We’ve got far too many eggs and far too few egg cups. 

      E)还有修饰词既不用very,也不用much. eg. be well worth doing, be well above the tree

2. so和such

A)so … that … 与such … that … 的区别。

so +  形容词 / 副词 +  that …

so + 形容词 + a(n)+ 单数可数名词 + that …

so + many / much / little / few + 名词 + that …

such + a(n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词 + that …

such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that …

such + 形容词 + 复数名词 + that …

注意: 但当little表示“小”时用such。如:These are such little boys that they can’t dress themselves.下列so的用法是错误的:so a difficult problem, so difficult problems, so hot weather。

B) some/ any/ every/ no/ each/ all/ another/ several/ few/ many/ one/ two +such+n. eg. no such word

3.  be too much + n.

    be much too+ adj.

    be too much for sb. 对…太过分了

4.  can’t be too +adj.= can’t be +adj.+ enough “无论…都不为过”

   You can never be careful enough.= You can never be too careful.你越小心越好。

 

 

 

 

 

【各个击破】

1. John told me that ­­­­_____  nothing important have ever happened.   

   A. hardly           B. rarely           C. nearly                   D. almost

2. ---Why don’t you like the shirt?

  ---Its neck is not big for me at all. Have you got a shirt of this kind with _____ neck?   

  A. the biggest      B. a far bigger         C. by far the biggest       D. a more bigger

3. ---The temperature today is 10℃ below zero.

  ---Oh, it’s ____cold.   

   A. the most              B. the more              C. most                    D. much  more

4. ---Do you think him naughty enough?

 ---I’m afraid he’s ___than naughty.       

   A. more clever          B. clever  C. much clever  D. much more clever

5. Exercise is _____as any other to lose unwanted weight.  

   A. so useful a way      B. as a useful way  C. as useful a way     D. such a useful way

6. ---What’s wrong? You seem restless.  

  ---I was reduced to paying ____ price for it.

  A. double the              B. double of the       C. double                 D. double of

7. _____, the boys were shouting and singing.  

A.    Happy and excited                             B. Happily and excitedly  

C. To be happy and excited                     D. To be happily and excitedly

8. I’m glad to say that he’s already finished _____50% of the book in these three days.

  A. no less than   B. no more than       C. not more than             D. much less than

9. I’ll get there by six, if______.  

  A. not sooner              B. no sooner     C. not more quickly        D. no quick

10. The US is about the same size as China, but its population is five times ____. 

A.    as little             B. smaller          C. as few                  D. fewer

11. ----Is this ____book? 

  ---- Yes, it’s ___what I’m after.

  A. the very; just         B. the just; exactly     C. a very; just           D. the right; only

12. He has given up drinking. He drinks ______.  

  A. never again     B. not any more       C. no more                      D. once again

13. He hurried away, _____to meet his old friend.  

   A. looking forward     B. hoped                 C. anxiously            D. eager

14. Everything was very expensive. I didn’t buy ____fruit, but I’ve got some _____apples. 

  A. any; big red   B. any; red big         C. much; big red             D. some ; red big

15. ---Are you going to the football game?  

   ---No, the tickets are ____expensive for me.

   A. very much   B. so much               C. far too                  D. highly

16. We’ll have to wait a ____two weeks to know the examination result.  

   A. other             B. further          C. another                       D. more

17. The little town has now grown into a modern big city, and is ___ what it used to be.  

A.    twice the size than  B. two times the size as  C. twice the size as  D. twice the size of

18. The living carried away the dead and the healthy helped ____. 

  A. the ill              B. the wounded       C. the brave                     D. the rich

19. He likes going fishing. He usually uses a ______.  

  A. bamboo long fishing pole                  B. long bamboo fishing pole

  C. pole long bamboo and fishing           D. bamboo fishing long pole

20. He was the _____at that moment. 

  A. only awake person                            B. only person awake 

C. awake only person                              D. person only awake

21. I think his suggestion is ____ bad, and that of yours is_____ good.  

  A. fairly too; rather   B. rather too; fairly  C. fairly; rather too  D. rather; fairly too

22. Would you be ___ to tell me he time by your watch?    

A.    so kind            B. kind enough        C. enough kind               D. very kind

23. The winners are _____children brought up in the country.   

A. almost                     B. mostly           C. most                     D. nearly

24. The technical college education I playing an important part today and its role will be ____ important.  

A.    no less             B. no more               C. none the less               D. no more

25. A few weeks spent in traveling can be just ______classes in school.  

A.    a part of one’s education useful as     B. as a useful part of one’s education as

C. part of one’s education as useful                D. a part of one’s education as useful as

26. ______, the thief didn’t take anything valuable but my notebook.   

A.    Strange it is     B. To be strange       C. Strangely enough       D. It was strange

27. His attitude towards me proved ________.

  A. well                       B. warmly                C. friendly                       D. nicely

28. She is ______than her younger sister.   

A.    less richer       B. not more rich  C. less rich                       D. not rich

29. ---What do you think of the plan?   

   ---I feel ___that we ought to give it up at once.    

  A. strong             B. stronger               C. strongly                      D. it strong

30. ---Did you enjoy the movie last night?   

   ---Yes, I didn’t expect it ______ wonderful.  

A. more                       B. as                  C. most                     D. much

上期答案:

 

冠词:ACCDC  BBDAA  CBCBC  CBABA

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