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高考英语语法讲座及练习(4)  

2009-02-25 15:36:01|  分类: 英语教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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三、代   词          

【要点点拨】

1、在定语从句中,当先行词是代词he / she / those / anyone等时,从句的引导词指人时用

who, 指物时用that。

 e.g. Those who know the answer can go on with the other exercises.

    He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man.

    Anything that benefits the people will be accepted.

2、all ( both, every, each)…… not = not all ( both, every, each) 构成部分否定,他们的全部否定分别是:none, neither, no one ( nothing)

e.g. Not all the students could understand his explanation.

         Each child can not go to school in the mountain village.

3、 含有else的所有格有以下几种表示法:somebody else’s, anybody else’s, nobody else’s ; who else’s = whose else

4、定代词作主语,代词可用:it(指物) 、he(指人) 、they(指人、物)

e.g. Everyone knows how to do it, doesn’t he/ don’t they?

4、all 作主语时的数:代替可数名词,是复数;代替不可数名词,是单数;作“所…的一切”解释时,不可数,动词用单数。

5、身代词:by oneself: 亲自、独自、自动地; of oneself: 自动地; be oneself: 身体好 help oneself (to…): 自助、自己拿……; in itself: 本质上、就其本身而言。

e.g. The man is too old to live by himself.  /  The door closed of itself.

   I’m not quite myself today.  /  The question in itself is not very difficult.

6. 用人称代词简略回答时,要用人称代词的宾格。

e.g. ---- Who is knocking at the door?   ---- Me, Tom.

Me to play Pingpong with him?

7. The rest、The remainder作主语时,谓语动词取决于它们所替代的名词。

e.g. I have read half of the book. The rest is to be finished in a week.

 Several people were saved, but the remainder were still inside the burning house.

区别以下几组词:

1、none, nothing, no one(nobody) 

 none:(指三个以上之中)没有任何(人、物),常用来否定回答以How many/ How much…?

引起的疑问句。可以后接介词短语of…;作主语时,谓语动词既可用单数也可以用复数。

e.g. ---- How many sheep did you see on the hill? ---- None.

---- Please give me some ink.   ---- Sorry, there is none(no ink) left.

None of the students could answer the question, which made the teacher disappointed

 nothing:(视为单数)没什么,无事

e.g. After the fire, nothing was left on the hills.

Nothing did he say and he went home silently.

 no

     e.g. ---- Who broke the window?  ---- No one. It broke of itself.

2、it / they, one / ones, the one / the ones ,that / those

it / they:用来指前面所提及的名词本身,起替代作用,避免重复;

e.g. He bought a pen. It cost him 50 yuan. / He has two brothers. They are both workers.

one / ones:用来指前面所提及的可数名词中的一个或几个,是泛指; 还可以泛指人。

  e.g. ---- Do you have a camera?  ---- No, but my father has one.

     A chair made of iron is usually heavier than one made of wood.

     One can not be too careful when crossing the road.

the one / the ones:用来特指前面所提及的可数名词中的一个或几个。

  e.g. ---- I’m looking for a pen.  ---- How do you like the one in the box?

     ---- Who are the boys?     ---- You mean the ones playing basketball?

that / those: “that” 用来替代前面出现过的可数名词单数= the one或不可数名词,以避免重复;“those” 用来替代前面出现过的可数名词复数= the ones,以避免重复。

  e.g. The price of a pen is often higher than that of a pencil.

      The weather in Beijing is colder than that in Shanghai.

     The students in Class Two are more hard-working than those(the ones) in Class One.

3、some / any, everybody / anybody

习惯上,some和everybody用于肯定句,any和 anybody用于疑问、否定句。

但当some用于疑问句时,表示对所涉及的名词持肯定态度,everybody用于疑问句时,译为“大家、每个人”。 e.g. Is everybody pleased with the show?

试比较:Do you have any water?  (对water持怀疑态度)

        ---- Do you like some more water?  ---- No, thanks. (对water持肯定态度)

 any和anybody也可以用于肯定句。当它们用于肯定句时,有很强的强调口气。

  e.g. ---- When shall we meet again?  ---- Any time you like.

     Anybody here knows how to treat a stranger.

4、who / whoever , what / whatever , which / whichever, whom / whomever

    who / what / which/ whom是疑问词,引起的句子具有疑问色彩;whoever / whatever / whichever /whomever 是代词,并不引起疑问句,而用来引导名词性从句或让步状语从句。   

    e.g. Who will teach us English is still unknown.

        Whoever did it will be punished.  / Whoever did it, he will be punished.

        What would you do if you had that sum of money?  /  Whatever you do, do it well.   

5、other / others; the other / the others ; another

other:作代词时,一般不单独使用,而必须与any, some, no 等连用。

  e.g. He is no other but Tom.  /  These are all we have, we have no other(s).

others:常与some连用,表示:一些……其它的……。

  e.g. Some people like fishing, some like boating, others skating.

the other: 与one连用,构成词组:one…the other:指两者中“一个……另一个……”

the others: 指在一定范围中的“其余的”。

  e.g. In our class some students are good at maths, some are good at Chinese, the others are good at physics.

another: 是形容词,“另一个、在一个”,一般作定语,既可以修饰单数名词,又可以修饰复数名词,还可以修饰数词。

  e.g. We stayed in New York for another three weeks.  / Please have another apple.

       当another修饰单数名词时,在上下文意思明确的情况下,可以把名词省略,这时another起代词作用。

  e.g. After eating an apple, I had another (one).

6、all ; both ; each ; every ; either

all:指三者或三者以上的所有,可以作形容词修饰名词复数,作代词,可作主语、宾语或同位语;后可接of介词短语。

both:指“两者都”,可以作形容词修饰名词复数,作代词,可作主语、宾语或同位语;后可接of介词短语。

each:“每一个”,一般指两者中的每一个,也可指许多中的每一个;可以作形容词修饰名词单数,作代词,可作主语、宾语或同位语;后可接of介词短语。

      e.g. There are trees on each side / both sides of the river.

          Each of us has a chance to go to university.

          We each have a dictionary.

every:指三者或三者以上中的每一个,是形容词,只能作定语,后面不能接of介词短语。

either:指“两者中一个”或“两者中无论哪一个”,可以作形容词修饰名词单数,作代词作主语、宾语;后可接of介词短语。

    e.g. If you keep still, you can sit on either end of the boat.

        I don’t like either of them. Do you have any other blouse?

 

【各个击破】

1. ---- Do you want tea or coffee?

  ---- _____ . I really don’t mind.

  A. Both                       B. None               C. Either                     D. Neither

2. I read about it in some book or other, does it matter ______ it was?

  A. where                B. what               C. how                D. which

3. ---- You’re always working. Come on, let’s go shopping.

  ---- _______ you ever want to do is going shopping.

  A. Anything                  B. Something             C. All                   D. That

4. The boss decided to dismiss two workers: ________ .

  A. you and Tom            B. I and you        C. Mary and I            D. she and you

5. I don’t care for ______ of the hats. Would you show me a third one?

  A. all                      B. none                C. either                     D. both

6. I now do not accept ______ that is offered to me, I only choose those useful.

  A. anything                   B. any                  C. whatever         D. everything

7. A school is an exciting place, ____ in which new talents are being discovered every day.

  A. and                           B. that                 C. there               D. one

8. ---- How much vinegar did you put in the salad?

  ---- I’m sorry to say, _______. I forgot.

  A. no                      B. nothing           C. no one                    D. none

9. ---- Is this umbrella yours?

  ---- No, mine is here. It must be ________.

  A. someone’s          B. someone’s else       C. someone else’s       D. someone’s else’s

10.Our feelings were ___________ .

   A. the same as they     B. same as theirs C. same as they   D. the same as theirs

11. You can reach the town ______ road you take.

   A. whatever         B. what               C. whichever              D. which

12. ______ who wish to go swimming may sign up here.

   A. Any person             B. Those                     C. Anyone           D. These

13. Now that the new machines have been bought, _____ will you do with the old _____ ?

   A. how ; ones              B. how ; one        C. what ; one              D. what ; ones

14. The thieves ran away separately, _____ carrying a bag.

   A. all                   B. each                C. every               D. either

15. ---- Did anybody ask for me during my absence?

   ---- Yes, ______ called Black asked to see you.

   A. he                           B. it                            C. one                  D. that

上期答案:

 

介词:DACAA  DBABB  BDACD  DCCAD ACACB  BADCA   BABDC  BBBBD  ADCDB

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